Textual Criticism: I Timothy 3:16 ὁς

Textual Criticism: I Timothy 3:16 ὁς

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…He5 was manifested in the flesh, vindicated6  by the Spirit,7   …(ASV)

…. God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit… (KJV)

….就是 在肉身顯現,被聖靈稱義,… (和合本)

“When the reading in KJV (“God was manifest in the flesh” I Tim.3:16) was challenged by another reading (“he who was manifest in the flesh”), some thought the doctrine of god becoming man was being undermined. Not so. The scholars who defended the reading with OS (“he who”) primarily did so because they realized that the second reading was clearly an emendation. The original scribes of  א*  A*  C* wrote ὁς , which was then changed by later scribes in all three manuscripts to θεός

(“God”). Scholars have conjectured that some scribe mistook the word OC (=ὁς ) for OC (the nomen sacrum for ΘC But it is difficult to imagine how several fourth- and fifth-century scribes, who had seen thousands of nomia sacra, would have made this mistake. It is more likely that the change was motivated by a desire to make the text say that it was “God” who was manifest in the flesh. But in the original text, the subject of the verse is simply “who” – which most translators render as “he” and which most commentators identify as Christ. Christ, the God-man, manifested his deity in and though his humanity. All English versions since the ASV have reflected the superior text, and most show the variant(s) in marginal notes.” (Philip W. Comfort, p.662-663)

ὁς, as indicated above, probably has its antecedent in a section of the cited liturgical document that is not included here , not in the previous section of I Timothy, which presents nothing appropriate. The antecedent would seem to have been the name of or a reference to Christ, as the descriptions in the six lines indicate. (George W. Knight II, p.184)

Some explanations in Chinese:

簡要來說, 提摩太前書3:16節 的 “神”一 字是後來4-5世紀的文士的詮釋翻譯, 其他的抄本都是 “他” (who)(代名詞)。 而這是一首詩的開頭第一句, 所以沒有人知 “他” 是指誰, 這也可能是這詩由一另一個文獻中採用過來, 所以詩前面的主詞/對象是代名詞, 但有學者認為有可能是指 “基督” (在新約中沒有任何地方記載耶穌是"神")。

About pastor Kenny Cheung

我是一位牧師,牧養一間小型的堂會,閒時, 會回到香港浸信會神學院進修,到這個年頭可以再讀書,是一件快樂的事。我有一個美滿的家庭,妻子和兒子是我幸福的根源。我喜歡音樂、電影、閱讀和旅遊等。你若問我:餘生有什麼真正想做的事?我想,我會渴望成為神的話語的學生、作基督的門徒!
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